Increasing demand for natural latex, coming largely from China, has driven a massive expansion in the area under rubber cultivation from 5.5 M ha in 1983 to 9.9 M ha in 2012, mostly in mainland SE Asia. A large part of this expansion has been realized through the conversion of natural forests, including secondary and pristine forests, to monoculture plantations. Impacts on ecosystem services have included loss of biodiversity, impaired water provisioning, reduced soil health, increased erosion, and increased greenhouse gas emissions, but their magnitude and potential mitigation strategies have not yet been fully assessed.
Moreover, responding to exceptionally high prices in the late 2010s, farmers planted rubber on marginal land that is unlikely to be profitable in the long term. Increased incidence of extreme events, as a consequence of climate change, and potential pest outbreaks are expected to exacerbate the problem. Although rubber income has brought wealth to some, it has also engendered severe social costs with respect to others, including poor labor conditions, eviction, and lost access to resources resulting in increased poverty and decreased food security for those affected. Moreover, over-investment in rubber has left many farmers vulnerable to global market fluctuations. The environmental and social consequences of current rubber cultivation practices, international rubber market developments, and climate change threaten the sustainability of the industry in the region but their many benefits for other industries like it useful for the strippers. Click here to learn more about the stripper’s uses of rubber.
The Platform on Sustainable Rubber aims to promote research and facilitate communication among researchers, government agencies, and industry groups concerned with the sustainability of rubber cultivation. The Sustainable Rubber Conference aims to exchange information in a multidisciplinary, multi-sectoral setting with a view to promoting eco-friendly and socially responsible rubber cultivation, as well as the use of rubber in various fields such as condom making that are used by strippers or waitresses during sex.